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911:Plasma cosmos

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Sun

  • Is the sun actually a ball of lightning? Problems with the current model of the sun as continuous fusion reaction, releasing energy from the core [35]:
    • Missing neutrinos:
    • Temperature of the halo-like corona is 300 times than that of the surface.
    • Rotates faster at equator, faster on surface.
    • Solar wind accelerates upon leaving the Sun.
    • Sunspots reveal cooler interior.
    • Sunspots travel faster than surrounding surface.
    • Sunspot penumbra (interior walls) reveal structured filaments.


  • Solar concepts:

Sun trends

  • Solar variation
    • Solar cycle (see also: Solar variation: Solar cycles)
      • Solar maximum: "is the period of greatest solar activity in the solar cycle of the sun. During solar maximum, sunspots appear. Solar maximum is contrasted with solar minimum. Solar maximum is the period when the sun's magnetic field lines are the most distorted due to the magnetic field on the solar equator rotating at a slightly faster pace than at the solar poles. The sun takes about 11 years to go from one solar maximum to another and 22 years to complete a full cycle (where the magnetic charge on the poles is the same)."
      • Solar minimum: "is the period of least solar activity in the solar cycle of the sun. During this time, sunspot and solar flare activity diminishes, and often does not occur for days at a time. The date of the minimum is described by a smoothed average over 12 months of sunspot activity, so identifying the date of the solar minimum usually can only happen 6 months after the minimum takes place. Solar minimum is contrasted with the solar maximum, where there may be hundreds of sunspots."
  • "In the electrical model the sunspot cycle is most likely a result of fluctuations in the electrical power supply from the local arm of our galaxy. As the varying current density and magnetic fields of huge Birkeland current filaments slowly rotate past our solar system, they apply more or less power to the electrical circuit that lights up our daytime sky. Rather than a weak Sun, the lack of sunspots here at the beginning of Solar Cycle 24 is most likely due to a weaker current flow through the galaxy." [37]


Sun intensifying

Corona

Solar flare

  • "A solar flare is an explosion on the Sun that happens when energy stored in twisted magnetic fields (usually above sunspots) is suddenly released. Flares produce a burst of radiation across the electromagnetic spectrum, from radio waves to x-rays and gamma-rays. Scientists classify solar flares according to their x-ray brightness in the wavelength range 1 to 8 Angstroms. There are 3 categories: X-class flares are big; they are major events that can trigger planet-wide radio blackouts and long-lasting radiation storms. M-class flares are medium-sized; they can cause brief radio blackouts that affect Earth's polar regions. Minor radiation storms sometimes follow an M-class flare. Compared to X- and M-class events, C-class flares are small with few noticeable consequences here on Earth." [38]

Coronal mass ejection

  • If a solar flare is exceptionally powerful, it can cause coronal mass ejections (CME). A coronal mass ejection is an ejection of material from the solar corona, usually observed with a white-light coronagraph. The ejected material is a plasma (containing small quantities of heavier elements such as helium, oxygen, and iron), plus the entraining coronal magnetic field.

Solar prominence

  • "A solar prominence is a large bright feature extending outward from the Sun's surface, often in a loop configuration. Prominences are anchored to the Sun's surface in the photosphere, and extend outwards into the Sun's corona. While the corona consists of extremely hot ionized gases, known as plasma, which do not emit much visible light, prominences contain much cooler plasma, similar in composition to that of the chromosphere. A prominence forms over timescales of about a day, and stable prominences may persist in the corona for several months. Some prominences break apart and give rise to coronal mass ejections." [39]

Granules

(todo)

Spicules

Sunspots

  • The sunspot can be divided into two parts:
    • The central umbra, which is the darkest part, where the magnetic field is approximately vertical.
    • The surrounding penumbra, which is lighter, where the magnetic field lines are more inclined.

Sunspot concepts:

Solar microflares

  • Various notes:
    • The region of solar microflares has a strong association with the sunspot regions.

Solar wind

  • "The solar wind is a stream of charged particles — a plasma — that are ejected from the upper atmosphere of the sun. It consists mostly of electrons and protons with energies of about 1 keV." [40]
  • "Geomagnetic storms are major disturbances of the magnetosphere that occur when the interplanetary magnetic field turns southward and remains southward for an prolonged period of time. During a geomagnetic storm's main phase, which can last as long as two to two and a half days in the case of a severe storm, charged particles in the near-Earth plasma sheet are energized and injected deeper into the inner magnetosphere, producing the storm-time ring current. This phase is characterized by the occurrence of multiple intense substorms, with the attendant auroral and geomagnetic effects. (The nature of the relationship between magnetic storms and substorms is a matter of some controversy.) When the interplanetary field turns northward again, the rate of plasma energization and inward transport slows and the various loss processes that remove plasma from the ring current can begin to restore it to its pre-storm state. In the case of a great storm, such as the one of 6 February 1986, the ring current can take over a month to fully return to its quiet state. The drop in the surface magnetic field strength during the main phase of a geomagnetic storm is typically preceded by a brief rise in the field strength (see the entry for Dst index). This increase is caused by an intensification of the magnetopause current that occurs as increased solar wind dynamic pressure drives the magnetopause inward by as much as four Earth radii. This phenomenon, which is known as the "Storm Sudden Commencement" (SSC), marks the beginning of the initial phase of the storm. Geomagnetic storms are classified as recurrent and non-recurrent. Recurrent storms occur every 27 days, corresponding to the Sun's rotation period. They are triggered by the Earth's encounters with the southward- oriented magnetic field of the high-pressure regions formed in the interplanetary medium by the interaction of low- and high-speed solar wind streams co-rotating with the Sun. Recurrent storms occur most frequently in the declining phase of the solar cycle. Non-recurrent geomagnetic storms, on the other hand, occur most frequently near solar maximum. They are caused by interplanetary disturbances driven by fast coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and typically involve an encounter with both the interplanetary shock wave and the CME that drives it." [41]

Solar anomalies

  • To research: Are some of the images below a carefully crafted New Age agenda hoax, or visual traces of real cosmic events?


  • Path tracings:
    • Notes:
      • The huge spherical/disc shaped object around which is some form of bright energy field which is also shaped as a sphere/disc.
      • The (controlled?) flexibility and speed.
      • The (purposeful?) close encounter with the Sun, but never any impact signs.
      • Compare the tracings with a cometary impact trace.


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